Aim: This study determined how Nigerian nursing mothers deal with umbilical cord care.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study on 388 Nigerian nursing mothers. Study population was randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was performed and data was analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS).
Results: Most mothers (380 (97.9%)) cleaned babies’ cord. It was 59 (15.2%) mothers who did not clean the cord at every time of changing the diaper. Regarding hand hygiene, only 88 (22.7%) washed their hands with soap. Only 217 (55.9%) cleaned the base of the cord first before the cleaning the surrounding skin. A razor was used to cut the cord in 186 (47.9%). Cord was clamped in 373 (96.1%), and cord clamp was made by tying the cord. A few mothers (131 (22.8%)) used chlorhexidine to the cord disinfaction, while 116 (29.9%) still used herbs. There was a significant relationship between levels of education, income, number of children on cord care practice (P=0.00, 0.00, 0.019).
Conclusion: Many women in this area dealt with the cord in their own way and the incidence of chlorhexidine use, which is a recommended disinfection, was very low. Safety cord procedure/disinfection should be urgently educated. The present data may be useful to further making health policy strategy regarding cord hygiene in this area. This data may be also generalizable to any other developing countries.
Introduction: Lung cancer is one of the biggest health problems in the world. Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), which account for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases, are the leading cause of deaths due to cancer worldwide. The type 1planned death molecule (PD-I, CD279) and its PD-L1 ligands (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273) are the key molecules inhibiting the immune regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of PD-L2 gene and the evaluation of cancerous stages of NSCLC and its subclasses in lung cancer patients in Tehran hospitals using Real-Time PCR.
Materials and Methods: A total of 35 clinical samples were collected from patients with NSCLC-derived lung cancer from three hospitals in Tehran (Khatam, Athiyah and Masih Hospitals). Of the 35 samples obtained in 2017, 20% of them were women and 80% were men. The age range of patients varied from 37 to 80 years. The disease grade gradients among the patients in this investigation varied and 22 different grades were observed. To investigate the PDL-2 gene expression, after extraction of total RNA and cDNA synthesis using Real-Time PCR, the expression of the gene was investigated.
Results: 74% of adenocarcinoma cases were in T-categories of lung cancer and 25% of patients were in grade IIIa. Patients with T3 stage had four samples, 2 of which were adenocarcinoma and other 2 samples being SCC and their age ranged from 55 to 62 years old. Three patients were in the T1 category, of which 100% had adenocarcinoma. The results showed that expression of PD-L2 gene was increased 5.45 fold among patients with NSCLC-type lung cancer compared to those with normal condition.
Conclusion:PD-L2 expression detection methods, including the detection of mRNA expression by using Real-Time PCR and the use of multiple systems for detecting PD-L2 expression with cell type and in association with other immune markers, can make a deeper understanding of PD-L2 as a biomarker and help to diagnose lung tumors of the NSCLC type. In our studies, it was found that expression of PD-L2 gene in cancer patients is higher than normal conditions.
Background: Malaria is still considered a major public health problem in developing countries. The malaria parasite has develop resistant to orthodox drugs over the years, thus need for herbal remedy.
Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the antiplasmodial potency of ethanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya against Plasmodium berghei in infected Swiss albino mice.
Methods: Fresh and health leaves of C. papaya free from disease were harvested from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. They were air dried, milled into powder and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as the solvent. Thirty Swiss albino mice weighing obtained from the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, were acclimatized for seven (7) days and divided into six groups. Each mouse in groups 2 to 6 was inoculated intraperitoneally with infected blood suspension containing about 1x107Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cells on day zero while those in group 1 were not infected and this served as the normal control group. Animals in group 2 were administered 0.2 ml normal saline, those in group 3 were administered Chloroquine diphosphate at 5 mg/kg body weight; those in groups 4, 5 and 6 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the ethanolic leaf extract respectively. All treatments were orally done once per day for five consecutive days from when parasites were first seen in the infected animal blood. Parasitemia Count and PCV were done using standard methods.
Results:C. papaya extract exhibited antimalarial properties especially at 200 and 400 mg/kg and the results were not different from that of chloroquine.
Conclusion: The result of this present study confirmed that ethanolic leaf extract of C. papaya which displayed good activities against P. berghei are suitable for their traditional use in the treatment of malaria fever.
This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of Viscum album (mistletoe) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) in treating Rat liver against CCL4-induced liver injury. Mistletoe and ginger are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders, including hepatic disorders. Biochemical parameters and histological structure were assessed and used as a measure of the therapeutic potential of the herbs against CCL4-induced liver injury. The experimental animals (15 male wistar Albino Rats) weighing between 100-120 g were randomly divided into nine (3) groups. Each group comprised 5 rats and was labelled as group 1, 2 or 3. Group 1 (negative control) animals were administered saline orally daily for 6 weeks (1ml volume per kg body weight) while group 2 (CCL4 group) animals were administered CCL4 mixed with olive oil as the vehicle in 1:1 ratio (3 ml/kg body weight). Group 3 represented the treatment group with extracts of the two herbal plants (250mg/kg daily). The combined herbal extracts administered orally for 6 weeks showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the concentrations or activities of liver function parameters including serum ALT, ALP, AST and GGT activities and serum protein, albumin, and bilirubin concentrations as compared with the marked increases in the parameters in CCL4-only treated rats. Histological examination of the liver of CCL4–treated rats with the combined herbal extracts showed less destruction of liver architecture in comparison to the group treated with CCL4 only. The results indicated that the combined herbal extracts investigated (mistletoe, and ginger) had a therapeutic effect against CCL4-induced liver injury and this effect could be due to the phytochemicals present in the herbs.
Background: Fish is important animal sources for healthy diet. It's rich in amino and unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and metals. fish consumption is linked to decreased heart diseases, inflammatory disease as arthritis and prevention of cancer.
The Aim of Study: The study was to assess the Socio-demographic factors, personal attitudes, knowledge, preferences and awareness regarding fish.
Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 372 of UQU (Umm Al-Qura university) female students, questionnaire was used for data collection to study Socioeconomic status, fish consumption, preferences, knowledge, awareness and Statistical Analysis.
Results: This study is about the importance of fish consumption, (281) of participants were consumers. The highest consumption was (21-23) years (47.3%), scientific colleges (57.6%), single with family (84.6%) and (60.8%) their month income >6000 SR. results indicated that (55.8%) consumed fish because of nutritional value and, (31.3%) taste. Data showed (24,5%) don't consume, (37.3%) dislike fish consumption due taste and odor, most Participants (99.2%) were aware about nutritional value of fish this proves nutritional awareness, (96,2) knew that Omega-3 fatty acid in fish is useful in maintaining cardiovascular function, (92,2%) knew fishes content of micronutrients (75%) have an awareness regarding fish content of cholesterol.
Conclusion: present study revealed awareness about fishes consumption importance was the highest for older age, scientific colleges, high income, results indicated the highest ratio of participants had consumed fishes because of nutritional value, some because of taste. The majority of respondents were aware of about Omega-3 fatty acid in fish is useful in maintaining cardiovascular function, fish content of micronutrients and cholesterol.